Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens: Difference between revisions

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The Hungarian government’s decade-long efforts to have U.S. visa requirements abolished for Hungarian citizens finally came to fruition on 17 November 2008 when the United States decided to include Hungary in its [[Visa Waiver Program]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://hungary.usembassy.gov/visa_waiver.html |title=Travel on the Visa Waiver Program |publisher=Embassy of the United States in Budapest |access-date=2010-01-28 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100208185337/http://hungary.usembassy.gov/visa_waiver.html |archive-date=2010-02-08 |url-status=dead }}</ref> The inclusion of Hungary in the Visa Waiver Program was considered a major event there. [[Kinga Göncz]], the country’s then foreign minister, even went as far as to describe it as “a landmark in [[Hungary – United States relations|our relations]] [with the United States], since the visa waiver was essentially the single unresolved issue.”<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.mfa.gov.hu/kum/en/bal/actualities/spokesman_statements/GK_US_visa_eng_1017.htm |date=2008-10-17 |title=The last open chapter in Hungarian-U.S. relations has been closed with Hungary’s entry in the Visa Waiver Program expected within a month – Kinga Göncz welcomes President Bush’s announcement |publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary |access-date=2010-01-28}}</ref> However, Hungarian President [[László Sólyom]], who had promised upon his election in 2005 never to visit the United States as long as fingerprint requirements were part of U.S. visa procedures, refused to sign the agreement on the U.S. Visa Waiver Program, fearing it would give the United States too much access to Hungary’s criminal registry. His refusal did not affect Hungary’s inclusion in the program.<ref>{{cite news |title=Hungarian president rejects agreement needed for U.S. visa waiver |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-10/21/content_10225789.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110609154556/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-10/21/content_10225789.htm |url-status=dead |archive-date=June 9, 2011 |agency=[[Xinhua News Agency]] |date=2008-10-20 |access-date=2010-01-28}}</ref>

The Hungarian government’s decade-long efforts to have U.S. visa requirements abolished for Hungarian citizens finally came to fruition on 17 November 2008 when the United States decided to include Hungary in its [[Visa Waiver Program]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://hungary.usembassy.gov/visa_waiver.html |title=Travel on the Visa Waiver Program |publisher=Embassy of the United States in Budapest |access-date=2010-01-28 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100208185337/http://hungary.usembassy.gov/visa_waiver.html |archive-date=2010-02-08 |url-status=dead }}</ref> The inclusion of Hungary in the Visa Waiver Program was considered a major event there. [[Kinga Göncz]], the country’s then foreign minister, even went as far as to describe it as “a landmark in [[Hungary – United States relations|our relations]] [with the United States], since the visa waiver was essentially the single unresolved issue.”<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.mfa.gov.hu/kum/en/bal/actualities/spokesman_statements/GK_US_visa_eng_1017.htm |date=2008-10-17 |title=The last open chapter in Hungarian-U.S. relations has been closed with Hungary’s entry in the Visa Waiver Program expected within a month – Kinga Göncz welcomes President Bush’s announcement |publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary |access-date=2010-01-28}}</ref> However, Hungarian President [[László Sólyom]], who had promised upon his election in 2005 never to visit the United States as long as fingerprint requirements were part of U.S. visa procedures, refused to sign the agreement on the U.S. Visa Waiver Program, fearing it would give the United States too much access to Hungary’s criminal registry. His refusal did not affect Hungary’s inclusion in the program.<ref>{{cite news |title=Hungarian president rejects agreement needed for U.S. visa waiver |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-10/21/content_10225789.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110609154556/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-10/21/content_10225789.htm |url-status=dead |archive-date=June 9, 2011 |agency=[[Xinhua News Agency]] |date=2008-10-20 |access-date=2010-01-28}}</ref>

Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens were lifted by Qatar (July 2012),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/azsia?katar | title=Konzuli Szolgálat| date=8 March 2022}}</ref> Kyrgyzstan (July 2012),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/azsia?kirgizisztan | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Armenia (January 2013),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/europa-utazasi-tanacsok?ormenyorszag | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Jamaica (March 2013),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/amerika?jamaica | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Turkey (February 2014),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/europa-utazasi-tanacsok?torokorszag | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Papua New Guinea (March 2014),<ref>{{cite web|url=https://ica.gov.pg/uploads/media/post_file_6166280-voa-eligible-country-list-public-notice-31032014-v3-new.pdf|title=Visa on Arrival Eligible Countries List|website=Papua New Guinea Immigration and Citizenship Service Authority}}</ref> Bahrain (October 2014),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bahrain.com/en/vp/visitor-information/Pages/Visa-Inforamtion.aspx#.VCSQ5BYZnA5 |title=Visa Information |access-date=2014-08-26 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140819135209/http://www.bahrain.com/en/vp/visitor-information/Pages/Visa-Inforamtion.aspx#.VCSQ5BYZnA5 |archive-date=2014-08-19 |url-status=dead }}</ref> the United Arab Emirates (May 2015),<ref name=”consilium.europa.eu”>{{Cite web|url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/05/06-eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-united-arab-emirates/|title=EU signs visa waiver agreement with the United Arab Emirates – Consilium}}</ref> Timor-Leste (May 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://eu2015.lv/news/media-releases/1873-eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-with-timor-leste|title=EU signs visa waiver agreement with Timor Leste|website=eu2015.lv}}</ref> Samoa (May 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/05/28-jha-eu-visa-waiver-agreements/#feedback-form|title=EU signs visa waiver agreements with 7 ACP countries – Consilium}}</ref> Indonesia (June 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://jakartaglobe.id/opinion/indonesia-waives-visa-requirements-for-45-countries|title=Indonesia Formally Waives Visa Requirements for 45 Countries|website=Jakarta Globe|date=12 June 2015 }}</ref> Kazakhstan (July 2015),<ref name=”astanatimes.com”>{{Cite web|url=https://astanatimes.com/2015/06/in-milan-nazarbayev-announces-extension-of-visa-free-regime-for-20-countries/|title=In Milan, Nazarbayev Announces Extension of Visa Free Regime for 20 Countries|first=Astana|last=Times|date=June 29, 2015|website=The Astana Times}}</ref> São Tomé and Príncipe (August 2015),<ref>[http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2015/07/29/sao-tome-and-principe-grants-visa-exemptions-to-citizens-of-europe-and-the-us/ São Tomé and Príncipe grants visa exemptions to citizens of Europe and the US]</ref> Tonga (November 2015),<ref name=”ReferenceA”>{{Cite web|url=https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A22015A1203%2801%29|title= Agreement between the European Union and the Kingdom of Tonga on the short-stay visa waiver |website=eur-lex.europa.eu}}</ref> Palau (December 2015),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/documents-publications/agreements-conventions/agreement/?aid=2015058 | title=Agreement – Consilium}}</ref> Marshall Islands (June 2016),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.postguam.com/news/pacific/eu-and-marshall-islands-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/article_d1914736-443e-11e6-acb7-13e57b8441ba.html|title=EU and Marshall Islands sign visa-waiver agreement|date=July 8, 2016|website=The Guam Daily Post}}</ref> Tuvalu (July 2016),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thejetnewspaper.com/2016/07/05/eu-and-tuvalu-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/ |title=EU and Tuvalu Sign Visa Waiver Agreement |access-date=2016-07-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160714000326/http://www.thejetnewspaper.com/2016/07/05/eu-and-tuvalu-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/ |archive-date=2016-07-14 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Solomon Islands (October 2016),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.solomonislandsembassy.com/news-and-media/eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-with-solomon-islands/|title=EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands|website=Solomon Islands Embassy}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/eu_press_release_-_visa_waiver_si_0.pdf|title=EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands|date=10 October 2016|website= eeas.europa.eu}}</ref> Belarus (February 2017),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://eng.belta.by/politics/view/five-day-visa-free-regime-to-enter-into-force-in-belarus-on-12-february-2017-97817-2017/ | title=Five-day visa-free regime to enter into force in Belarus on 12 February 2017| date=2017-01-11}}</ref> Cape Verde (1 January 2019),<ref name=”macaubusiness.com”>{{Cite web|url=https://www.macaubusiness.com/citizens-of-32-european-countries-exempted-from-visas-for-cape-verde-from-january-1/|title=Citizens of 32 European countries exempted from visas for Cape Verde from January 1|date=December 29, 2018}}</ref> Uzbekistan (1 February 2019),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.indiablooms.com/travel-details/N/855/uzbekistan-announces-visa-waiver-for-citizens-of-45-countries.html|title=Uzbekistan announces visa waiver for citizens of 45 countries &#124; Indiablooms – First Portal on Digital News Management|website=Indiablooms.com}}</ref> Oman (December 2020).

Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens were lifted by Qatar (July 2012),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/azsia?katar | title=Konzuli Szolgálat| date=8 March 2022}}</ref> Kyrgyzstan (July 2012),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/azsia?kirgizisztan | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Armenia (January 2013),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/europa-utazasi-tanacsok?ormenyorszag | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Jamaica (March 2013),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/amerika?jamaica | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Turkey (February 2014),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/europa-utazasi-tanacsok?torokorszag | title=Konzuli Szolgálat}}</ref> Papua New Guinea (March 2014),<ref>{{cite web|url=https://ica.gov.pg/uploads/media/post_file_6166280-voa-eligible-country-list-public-notice-31032014-v3-new.pdf|title=Visa on Arrival Eligible Countries List|website=Papua New Guinea Immigration and Citizenship Service Authority}}</ref> Bahrain (October 2014),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bahrain.com/en/vp/visitor-information/Pages/Visa-Inforamtion.aspx#.VCSQ5BYZnA5 |title=Visa Information |access-date=2014-08-26 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140819135209/http://www.bahrain.com/en/vp/visitor-information/Pages/Visa-Inforamtion.aspx#.VCSQ5BYZnA5 |archive-date=2014-08-19 |url-status=dead }}</ref> the United Arab Emirates (May 2015),<ref name=”consilium.europa.eu”>{{Cite web|url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/05/06-eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-united-arab-emirates/|title=EU signs visa waiver agreement with the United Arab Emirates – Consilium}}</ref> Timor-Leste (May 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://eu2015.lv/news/media-releases/1873-eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-with-timor-leste|title=EU signs visa waiver agreement with Timor Leste|website=eu2015.lv}}</ref> Samoa (May 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/05/28-jha-eu-visa-waiver-agreements/#feedback-form|title=EU signs visa waiver agreements with 7 ACP countries – Consilium}}</ref> Indonesia (June 2015),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://jakartaglobe.id/opinion/indonesia-waives-visa-requirements-for-45-countries|title=Indonesia Formally Waives Visa Requirements for 45 Countries|website=Jakarta Globe|date=12 June 2015 }}</ref> Kazakhstan (July 2015),<ref name=”astanatimes.com”>{{Cite web|url=https://astanatimes.com/2015/06/in-milan-nazarbayev-announces-extension-of-visa-free-regime-for-20-countries/|title=In Milan, Nazarbayev Announces Extension of Visa Free Regime for 20 Countries|first=Astana|last=Times|date=June 29, 2015|website=The Astana Times}}</ref> São Tomé and Príncipe (August 2015),<ref>[http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2015/07/29/sao-tome-and-principe-grants-visa-exemptions-to-citizens-of-europe-and-the-us/ São Tomé and Príncipe grants visa exemptions to citizens of Europe and the US]</ref> Tonga (November 2015),<ref name=”ReferenceA”>{{Cite web|url=https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A22015A1203%2801%29|title= Agreement between the European Union and the Kingdom of Tonga on the short-stay visa waiver |website=eur-lex.europa.eu}}</ref> Palau (December 2015),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/documents-publications/agreements-conventions/agreement/?aid=2015058 | title=Agreement – Consilium}}</ref> Marshall Islands (June 2016),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.postguam.com/news/pacific/eu-and-marshall-islands-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/article_d1914736-443e-11e6-acb7-13e57b8441ba.html|title=EU and Marshall Islands sign visa-waiver agreement|date=July 8, 2016|website=The Guam Daily Post}}</ref> Tuvalu (July 2016),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thejetnewspaper.com/2016/07/05/eu-and-tuvalu-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/ |title=EU and Tuvalu Sign Visa Waiver Agreement |access-date=2016-07-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160714000326/http://www.thejetnewspaper.com/2016/07/05/eu-and-tuvalu-sign-visa-waiver-agreement/ |archive-date=2016-07-14 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Solomon Islands (October 2016),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.solomonislandsembassy.com/news-and-media/eu-signs-visa-waiver-agreement-with-solomon-islands/|title=EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands|website=Solomon Islands Embassy}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/eu_press_release_-_visa_waiver_si_0.pdf|title=EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands|date=10 October 2016|website= eeas.europa.eu}}</ref> Belarus (February 2017),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://eng.belta.by/politics/view/five-day-visa-free-regime-to-enter-into-force-in-belarus-on-12-february-2017-97817-2017/ | title=Five-day visa-free regime to enter into force in Belarus on 12 February 2017| date=2017-01-11}}</ref> Cape Verde (1 January 2019),<ref name=”macaubusiness.com”>{{Cite web|url=https://www.macaubusiness.com/citizens-of-32-european-countries-exempted-from-visas-for-cape-verde-from-january-1/|title=Citizens of 32 European countries exempted from visas for Cape Verde from January 1|date=December 29, 2018}}</ref> Uzbekistan (1 February 2019),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.indiablooms.com/travel-details/N/855/uzbekistan-announces-visa-waiver-for-citizens-of-45-countries.html|title=Uzbekistan announces visa waiver for citizens of 45 countries &#124; Indiablooms – First Portal on Digital News Management|website=Indiablooms.com}}</ref> Oman (December 2020), China (14 March 2024).<ref>{{Cite web |title=Update: China announces visa-free policy for 6 European countries: FM-Xinhua |url=https://english.news.cn/20240307/38367d17750442b9aa842ee71f72e3a6/c.html |access-date=2024-03-12 |website=english.news.cn}}</ref>

Hungarian citizens were made eligible for eVisas by Guinea and Malawi (October 2019), Saudi Arabia (September 2019), Suriname and Pakistan (April 2019), Tanzania and Papua New Guinea (November 2018),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.herald.ng/tanzania-launches-e-visa-residence-permit-for-foreigners/|title=Tanzania launches e-visa, residence permit for foreigners -|date=November 26, 2018}}</ref> Ethiopia (1 June 2018),{{citation needed|date=April 2021}} Angola (March 2018), Djibouti (February 2018),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.deplacementspros.com/Un-e-visa-pour-Djibouti_a47351.html|title=Un e-visa pour Djibouti|first=La|last=Redaction|date=March 8, 2018}}</ref> Egypt (December 2017),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.egyptindependent.com/egypts-electronic-visa-now-available-41-countries/ | title=Egypt’s electronic visa is now available for 41 countries| date=2017-12-04}}</ref> Azerbaijan (January 2017),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.azernews.az/nation/106606.html|title=ASAN Visa portal launched|date=December 16, 2016|website=Azernews.Az}}</ref> Tajikistan (June 2016),<ref name=”evisa.tj”>{{cite web | url=https://www.evisa.tj | title=Tajikistan e-Visa}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://mfa.tj/ru/novosti-i-sobytiya/o-vvedenii-sistemy-vydachi-elektronnoy-vizy.html | title=Вазорати корҳои хориҷии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон}}</ref> India (August 2015)<ref>[http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=124631 Government extends e-Tourist Visa scheme to 36 more countries and 7 more airports from August 15, 2015], [[Press Information Bureau]], [[Government of India]], 7 August 2015.</ref> and Myanmar (October 2014).<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.myanmarlits.com/blog/myanmar-allows-24-more-countries-for-online-visa | title=Myanmar allows 24 more countries for online Visa}}</ref>

Hungarian citizens were made eligible for eVisas by Guinea and Malawi (October 2019), Saudi Arabia (September 2019), Suriname and Pakistan (April 2019), Tanzania and Papua New Guinea (November 2018),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.herald.ng/tanzania-launches-e-visa-residence-permit-for-foreigners/|title=Tanzania launches e-visa, residence permit for foreigners -|date=November 26, 2018}}</ref> Ethiopia (1 June 2018),{{citation needed|date=April 2021}} Angola (March 2018), Djibouti (February 2018),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.deplacementspros.com/Un-e-visa-pour-Djibouti_a47351.html|title=Un e-visa pour Djibouti|first=La|last=Redaction|date=March 8, 2018}}</ref> Egypt (December 2017),<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.egyptindependent.com/egypts-electronic-visa-now-available-41-countries/ | title=Egypt’s electronic visa is now available for 41 countries| date=2017-12-04}}</ref> Azerbaijan (January 2017),<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.azernews.az/nation/106606.html|title=ASAN Visa portal launched|date=December 16, 2016|website=Azernews.Az}}</ref> Tajikistan (June 2016),<ref name=”evisa.tj”>{{cite web | url=https://www.evisa.tj | title=Tajikistan e-Visa}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://mfa.tj/ru/novosti-i-sobytiya/o-vvedenii-sistemy-vydachi-elektronnoy-vizy.html | title=Вазорати корҳои хориҷии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон}}</ref> India (August 2015)<ref>[http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=124631 Government extends e-Tourist Visa scheme to 36 more countries and 7 more airports from August 15, 2015], [[Press Information Bureau]], [[Government of India]], 7 August 2015.</ref> and Myanmar (October 2014).<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.myanmarlits.com/blog/myanmar-allows-24-more-countries-for-online-visa | title=Myanmar allows 24 more countries for online Visa}}</ref>

Administrative entry restrictions
A Hungarian passport
Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed on citizens of Hungary by the authorities of other states.
As of 2024, Hungarian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 188 countries and territories, ranking the Hungarian passport 7th in the world according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Historical perspective[edit]
Travel restrictions have been considerably relaxed since the end of communism and the removal of Hungary’s border fence with Austria in May 1989.
During the communist era, travelling to the West was a long and difficult process for Hungarian citizens. The first step was to obtain an invitation, preferably from a relative in the country to be visited, and a promise of full financial support. With such an invitation, and assuming a passport could be obtained, a Hungarian could travel westwards once a year. However, in the absence of such an invitation, travel to the West was possible only once every three years.[2] The Communist-era visa restrictions restricted Hungarian artists and musicians since it hindered their ability to travel abroad. As a result, many chose to leave Hungary and settle in the West, such as famed cellist János Starker, who emigrated to the United States in 1948 because it was impossible for him to tour abroad with a Hungarian passport.[3]
Domestic events in Hungary have affected the visa requirements imposed on Hungarian citizens by Western countries. The Revolution of 1956 and the ensuing domestic repression resulted in the United States deciding to expedite all Hungarian visa requests.[4]
The end of communism in 1989 led to a rapid relaxation of visa restrictions. Visa-free travel for Hungarians was introduced by several countries, including Sweden in 1986,[5] the United Kingdom in 1990,[5] Germany in 1990,[6] France (1990),[5] Spain in 1990,[5] Belgium in 1991[5] South Korea in 1991[7] and Chile in 1992.[8] 1993 saw Israel,[9] South Africa,[5] Portugal[5] and Tunisia abolish the requirement for ordinary Hungarian tourists to obtain visas in advance of departure.[5] Canada [10] and Slovakia followed in 1994.[5] Italy waived prior visas in 1995,[5] Mexico in 1997,[11] Austria in 1997,[5] Japan (1997),[12] Slovenia (1998),[5] Panama (1998),[13] Morocco (1999).[14] New Zealand scrapped requirements for visas in 2000 [5] followed by Croatia that same year,[5] and Brazil in 2001,[5] Hong Kong in 2002,[15] Serbia in 2003,[5] Ukraine in 2003[5] and Peru later that same year of 2003.[5]
Despite the tremendous increase in the number of visa waiver agreements, there have also been setbacks. In June 2001, the visa-free travel agreement between Hungary and Russia came to an end, and both countries now require visas of one another’s citizens.[16]

A Hungarian identity card is valid for travel to most European countries Hungary’s accession to the European Union on 1 May 2004, along with its fellow V4 companions, radically boosted reciprocal visa-free arrangements.
Hungarians can now not only travel visa-free to any member state of the EU, but also have a right to settle there. A valid Hungarian passport or identity card is sufficient for any stay shorter than three months. For periods longer than three months, a residence permit is needed. Hungarians are allowed to settle in any EU country for more than three months if they work or study there, or if they are financially self-sufficient.[17] By virtue of the agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA), those rights also apply to Hungarians in Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.[18] The same rights also extend to Hungarians in Switzerland as a result of the Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons.[19] Following the accession to the European Union in 2004 and the Schengen Area in 2007, visa requirements were also lifted by several other countries including Georgia (2005),[20] Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005),[5] North Macedonia (2005),[5] Colombia (2005),[5] Moldova (2007),[21] Botswana (2008),[22] Taiwan (2008),[23] and Thailand (2011).[24]
The Hungarian government’s decade-long efforts to have U.S. visa requirements abolished for Hungarian citizens finally came to fruition on 17 November 2008 when the United States decided to include Hungary in its Visa Waiver Program.[25] The inclusion of Hungary in the Visa Waiver Program was considered a major event there. Kinga Göncz, the country’s then foreign minister, even went as far as to describe it as “a landmark in our relations [with the United States], since the visa waiver was essentially the single unresolved issue.”[26] However, Hungarian President László Sólyom, who had promised upon his election in 2005 never to visit the United States as long as fingerprint requirements were part of U.S. visa procedures, refused to sign the agreement on the U.S. Visa Waiver Program, fearing it would give the United States too much access to Hungary’s criminal registry. His refusal did not affect Hungary’s inclusion in the program.[27]
Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens were lifted by Qatar (July 2012),[28] Kyrgyzstan (July 2012),[29] Armenia (January 2013),[30] Jamaica (March 2013),[31] Turkey (February 2014),[32] Papua New Guinea (March 2014),[33] Bahrain (October 2014),[34] the United Arab Emirates (May 2015),[35] Timor-Leste (May 2015),[36] Samoa (May 2015),[37] Indonesia (June 2015),[38] Kazakhstan (July 2015),[39] São Tomé and Príncipe (August 2015),[40] Tonga (November 2015),[41] Palau (December 2015),[42] Marshall Islands (June 2016),[43] Tuvalu (July 2016),[44] Solomon Islands (October 2016),[45][46] Belarus (February 2017),[47] Cape Verde (1 January 2019),[48] Uzbekistan (1 February 2019),[49] Oman (December 2020), China (14 March 2024).[50]
Hungarian citizens were made eligible for eVisas by Guinea and Malawi (October 2019), Saudi Arabia (September 2019), Suriname and Pakistan (April 2019), Tanzania and Papua New Guinea (November 2018),[51] Ethiopia (1 June 2018),[citation needed] Angola (March 2018), Djibouti (February 2018),[52] Egypt (December 2017),[53] Azerbaijan (January 2017),[54] Tajikistan (June 2016),[55][56] India (August 2015)[57] and Myanmar (October 2014).[58]
The number of visa-free destinations for Hungarian citizens grew exponentially over the last few years, in 2009 Hungarian citizens could travel to 131 countries without a visa,[59] to 142 in 2010,[60] 153 in 2012 and 182 in 2020.[61]

Visa requirements map[edit]
Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens holding ordinary passports   Hungary   Freedom of movement   Visa not required / ESTA / eTA / eVisitor   Visa issued upon arrival   eVisa   Visa available both on arrival or online   Visa required
Visa requirements[edit]

Disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones[edit]
Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones:

Diplomatic passports[edit]
  Visa-free   Visa on arrival   Pre-arrival Internet registration required (ESTA, eVisitor)   Visa required
A Hungarian ordinary passport, with visa-free access to all of the world’s developed countries, is a very convenient travel document by international standards. However, it is not as handy as a Hungarian diplomatic passport, which has even less visa restrictions attached to it. Several countries offer visa-free access to holders of a Hungarian diplomatic passport, but not to ordinary passport holders. This is notably the case with the People’s Republic of China since 1992,[434] Russia (since 2001).[435] and India (since 2003).[436] As of July 2009, Hungarian diplomats can enter all G8+5 countries without a visa.[437] The Hungarian diplomatic passport holds the distinction of being the only travel document in the world granting such visa-free entry to all G8+5 member states.[a]
In total holders of various categories of official Hungarian passports have additional visa-free access to the following countries – Algeria (diplomatic passports), Azerbaijan (diplomatic or service passports), Belarus (diplomatic or service passports), China (diplomatic or service passports), Cuba (diplomatic or service passports), Egypt (diplomatic passports), India (diplomatic or official passports), Indonesia (diplomatic or service passports), Iran (diplomatic passports), Kazakhstan (diplomatic or service passports), Laos (diplomatic or official passports), Mongolia (diplomatic or official passports), Russia (diplomatic and service passports), Tajikistan (diplomatic or service passports), Turkmenistan (diplomatic or service passports) and Uzbekistan (diplomatic passports), Vietnam (diplomatic, official, service or special passports), Yemen (diplomatic passports). Holders of diplomatic or service passports of any country have visa-free access to Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Mali and Zimbabwe.

Right to consular protection in non-EU countries[edit]
Countries with Hungarian diplomatic missions
When they are in a territory with no Hungarian consular facilities, because Hungarian citizens are also citizens of the EU, they have the right to get consular assistance from any other EU country with a diplomatic mission in that territory.

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages[edit]
Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[438] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being valid or available.

Vaccination[edit]

Cover of the new International Certificate of Vaccination issued by the Bureau of Quarantine in the Philippines since 2021
Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[439] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[440]
Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[441][442]

Passport validity length[edit]
Very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a valid passport on arrival.
However many countries and groupings now require only an identity card – especially from their neighbours. Other countries may have special bilateral arrangements that depart from the generality of their passport validity length policies to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other’s citizens[443][444] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[445]
Some countries, such as Japan,[446] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[447] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.
In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[448] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[449] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru,[450] Philippines,[451] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[452]
Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.
Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Honduras, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand.
Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer’s intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.
Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.
Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.
Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[453] and South Africa.

Criminal record[edit]
Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[454] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata[edit]
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: discussion of Artsakh from before 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2024)
Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport
The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[455]
For example, Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens that have previously entered Azerbaijan through non-Azerbaijani controlled borders. This includes the illegal entry into the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[456] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding Armenian-occupied territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[457] and will be included in their “list of personae non gratae”.[458] As of 2 September 2019,[update] the list mentioned 852 people.

Israeli stamps[edit]
Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)
Kuwait,[459] Lebanon,[460] Libya,[461] Syria,[462] and Yemen[463] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.
To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals’ passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017[update]) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]
Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Biometrics[edit]

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to change planes rather than go landside.[464]
Fingerprinting countries/regions include Afghanistan,[465][466] Argentina,[467] Brunei, Cambodia,[468] China,[469] Ethiopia,[470] Ghana, Guinea,[471] India, Japan,[472][473] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[474] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[475] Mongolia, Saudi Arabia,[476] Singapore, South Korea,[477] Taiwan, Thailand,[478] Uganda,[479] the United Arab Emirates and the United States.
Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[480][481][482] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[483]
Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[484] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[485][486]

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]
References

^ “Global Passport Ranking”.

^ “Your passports if we please, comrades” (snippet view). The Economist. Vol. 304, no. 7505–7517. 1987. p. 37. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2010-01-27.

^ Campbell, Margaret (2004). “Chapter 27: American by Choice”. The Great Cellists. London: Robson. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-86105-654-2. OCLC 57487971. Retrieved 2010-01-27.

^ Rue, Larry (29 November 1956). “U.S. Expedites All Hungarian Visa Requests” (pay-per-view). Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2. ISSN 1085-6706. Retrieved 2010-01-27.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-11. Retrieved 2014-11-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

^ “Poles take advantage of new visa-free travel”. St. Petersburg Times. 9 April 1991. p. 6. ISSN 1563-6291. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”. 16 February 2023.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ ITIM (14 November 1993). “Hungarian Visa Requirements to Be Canceled”. The Jerusalem Post: 12. ISSN 0021-597X. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Marchi eases visa rule” (pay-per-view). The Record: B.10. 11 October 1994. ISSN 0824-5150. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Hungarian president visits Mexico; cooperation and visa agreements signed” (pay-per-view). NewsBank. MTI news agency. 1997-04-14. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Hungarian and Japanese ministers exchange documents on lifting visa obligation” (pay-per-view). NewsBank. MTI news agency. 1997-04-21. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”. 4 April 2023.

^ “Hong Kong, Hungary Sign Visa-Free Access Agreement” (pay-per-view). AsiaPulse News. 2002-01-10. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Visa accord between Hungary and Russia takes effect” (pay-per-view). NewsBank. MTI news agency. 2000-06-03. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ European Commission (2005). “Living, working, studying – An overview of your EU rights”. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved 2010-01-27.

^ “Travel documents for EU nationals”. European Commission.

^ “Entering and staying in Switzerland”. The Swiss Portal. Archived from the original on 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-01-27.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”. 11 May 2022.

^ “Travel on the Visa Waiver Program”. Embassy of the United States in Budapest. Archived from the original on 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “The last open chapter in Hungarian-U.S. relations has been closed with Hungary’s entry in the Visa Waiver Program expected within a month – Kinga Göncz welcomes President Bush’s announcement”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Hungarian president rejects agreement needed for U.S. visa waiver”. Xinhua News Agency. 2008-10-20. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”. 8 March 2022.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Konzuli Szolgálat”.

^ “Visa on Arrival Eligible Countries List” (PDF). Papua New Guinea Immigration and Citizenship Service Authority.

^ “Visa Information”. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2014-08-26.

^ “EU signs visa waiver agreement with the United Arab Emirates – Consilium”.

^ “EU signs visa waiver agreement with Timor Leste”. eu2015.lv.

^ “EU signs visa waiver agreements with 7 ACP countries – Consilium”.

^ “Indonesia Formally Waives Visa Requirements for 45 Countries”. Jakarta Globe. 12 June 2015.

^ Times, Astana (June 29, 2015). “In Milan, Nazarbayev Announces Extension of Visa Free Regime for 20 Countries”. The Astana Times.

^ São Tomé and Príncipe grants visa exemptions to citizens of Europe and the US

^ a b “Agreement between the European Union and the Kingdom of Tonga on the short-stay visa waiver”. eur-lex.europa.eu.

^ “Agreement – Consilium”.

^ “EU and Marshall Islands sign visa-waiver agreement”. The Guam Daily Post. July 8, 2016.

^ “EU and Tuvalu Sign Visa Waiver Agreement”. Archived from the original on 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2016-07-10.

^ “EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands”. Solomon Islands Embassy.

^ “EU signs Visa Waiver Agreement with Solomon Islands” (PDF). eeas.europa.eu. 10 October 2016.

^ “Five-day visa-free regime to enter into force in Belarus on 12 February 2017”. 2017-01-11.

^ a b “Citizens of 32 European countries exempted from visas for Cape Verde from January 1”. December 29, 2018.

^ “Uzbekistan announces visa waiver for citizens of 45 countries | Indiablooms – First Portal on Digital News Management”. Indiablooms.com.

^ “Update: China announces visa-free policy for 6 European countries: FM-Xinhua”. english.news.cn. Retrieved 2024-03-12.

^ “Tanzania launches e-visa, residence permit for foreigners -“. November 26, 2018.

^ Redaction, La (March 8, 2018). “Un e-visa pour Djibouti”.

^ “Egypt’s electronic visa is now available for 41 countries”. 2017-12-04.

^ “ASAN Visa portal launched”. Azernews.Az. December 16, 2016.

^ “Tajikistan e-Visa”.

^ “Вазорати корҳои хориҷии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон”.

^ Government extends e-Tourist Visa scheme to 36 more countries and 7 more airports from August 15, 2015, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, 7 August 2015.

^ “Myanmar allows 24 more countries for online Visa”.

^ “The Henley Visa Restrictions Index – Global Ranking 2008” (PDF). Henley & Partners. 2010-01-08. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-01-08.

^ “Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index Global Ranking 2010” (PDF). Henley & Partners. 2011-07-11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-11.

^ “The Henley Visa Restrictions Index – Global Ranking 2012” (PDF). Henley & Partners. 2013-11-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-04.

^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.

^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.

^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).

^ Visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.

^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.

^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.

^ Countries with visa-free travel regime, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani).

^ “Azerbaijan eVisa”.

^ eVISA Online Services – Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas

^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.

^ Barbados Visa Requirements and Reciprocal Arrangements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Barbados, 1 July 2020.

^ Visa-free travel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus.

^ Visa for Belgium, Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs of Belgium.

^ Do you need a visa to travel to Belize?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade & Immigration, Belize, July 2023.

^ Visa, Emigration and Immigration Directorate of Benin.

^ “Benin eVisa”.

^ Visa, Tourism Council of Bhutan.

^ “Bhutan eVisa”.

^ Requirements to enter Bolivia, General Directorate of Migration of Bolivia (in Spanish).

^ Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

^ Requirements for visa application, Government of Botswana.

^ Visas to travel to Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil (in Portuguese and English).

^ Country category for visa application, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei.

^ Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Burkina Faso eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Cambodia eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Cameroon eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Canada eTA”. 15 April 2015.

^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (May 17, 2013). “Entry requirements by country or territory”. www.canada.ca.

^ “Cape Verde EASE”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “144小时过境免签政策解读”. nia.gov.cn.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “DR Congo eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “CI eVisa”.

^ Visa requirements overview, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.

^ List of states whose citizens are exempt from visa requirement, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, 13 July 2017.

^ Countries with a visa requirement and visa-free countries, Danish Immigration Service, 8 December 2017.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Djibouti eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Egypt eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Equatorial Guinea eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Who does not need a visa to visit Estonia?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2 November 2017.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Extendable length of stay.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Ethiopia eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.

^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, January 2016.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Gabon eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office of Germany.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 13 June 2017.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Guinea eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Who does not need a visa, Directorate of Immigration of Iceland.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ e-Visa

^ The note is under Q1(v) in the FAQs

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Indonesia e-VOA”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Iran eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Countries that need a visa for Ireland, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.

^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.

^ Visa for Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Jordan E-Services”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Kenya eTA”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “K-ETA”.

^ “K-ETA Application Guide”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Kuwait eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ a b “Checkpoints – ກົມຕຳຫຼວດກວດຄົນເຂົ້າ-ອອກເມືອງ”. immigration.gov.la. Department of Immigration of Lao PDR. Retrieved 2023-04-29.

^ “Lao Visa Online | Lao eVisa Authorization Application”. laoevisa.gov.la. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lao PDR – Consular Department. Retrieved 2023-04-29.

^ “Laos International Travel Information”. travel.state.gov. U.S. Department of State – Bureau of Consular Affairs. Retrieved 2023-04-29.

^ Countries whose citizens may enter Latvia without a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 9 October 2017.

^ “Lebanese General Security – posts”. www.general-security.gov.lb.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Lesotho eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Visa, Government of Liechtenstein (in German).

^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, 30 August 2017.

^ Staying in Luxembourg for less than 90 days, Government of Luxembourg.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Malawi eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Who requires a visa?, Identity Malta.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Before you leave, Monaco Government Tourist Office.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Mozambique eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Myanmar eVisa”.

^ “Myanmar to allow visa on arrival for tourists from five countries”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Nepal Online Visa”.

^ Obtainable at Tribhuvan International Airport and certain land borders.

^ Short-stay Schengen visa (90 days or less), Government of the Netherlands.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ a b “Paying the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy”. immigration.govt.nz. Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved February 1, 2021. Many tourists, people on working holidays, and some students and workers coming to New Zealand must pay an International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy (IVL) of NZD $35.

^ “Information about: Australian Resident Visa”. immigration.govt.nz. Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved May 21, 2020. Australian citizens and permanent residents can visit, work and live in New Zealand. You do not need a visa before you travel to New Zealand.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Nigeria Immigration Services”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.

^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.

^ “Oman eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Pakistan Online Visa”.

^ “Business Visa in Your Inbox”.

^ “Tourist Visa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “PNG Easy Visitor Permit”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Visa-free countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.

^ Third countries whose citizens are required to have a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.

^ “Qatar Visas”.

^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Russia eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Rwanda E-Services”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Border formalities, San Marino Tourism Board.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Saudi Arabia eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Seychelles Electronic Border System”.

^ “Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Seychelles on the short-stay visa waiver”. EUR-Lex. Official Journal of the European Union. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2015.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Sierra Leone eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ Consular information and travel visa, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia.

^ Visa regimes and visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “South Sudan eVisa”.

^ Entry requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “SLVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Suriname eVisa”.

^ “Entry-fee”.

^ “Suriname eVisa | VFS Global | Official partner of the Government of Suriname”.

^ List of foreign citizens who require visa for entry into Sweden, Government of Sweden.

^ Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality, State Secretariat for Migration of Switzerland.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Tajikistan eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Tanzania eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Togo eVisa”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ “Visa information – Tunisia embassy in Berlin”.

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

^ International Air Transport Association (IATA), Travel Information Manual

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^ Brown, Theresa Cardinal (9 May 2016). “Biometric Entry-Exit Update: CBP Developing Land Border Process”. Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 25 April 2019. While a requirement for a biometric entry-exit system has been in law for over a decade, it is not yet a reality. Many reasons for the long gestating development have been documented in BPC’s 2014 report Entry-Exit System: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook, including the technological, operational, and cost challenges of creating exit systems and infrastructure where none exist today. However, many critics, especially in Congress, simply accused the Department of Homeland security of dragging its feet… the major operational, logistical, and technical challenge in implementing exit capability at our ports has been the land borders. Unlike airports and seaports, the land border environment is not physically controlled, there is no means to get advance information on who is arriving, and the sheer volume of travel—both vehicular and pedestrian—creates challenges in any system to not further exacerbate delays. While biometric exit for land vehicular traffic is still in the “what if” stage, CBP is moving ahead and piloting systems and technology to use with the large population of pedestrian crossers at the U.S.-Mexico border.

^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). “U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners’ Departures at the Canadian Border”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.

^ Lipton, Eric (15 December 2006). “Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.

^ Campoy, Ana (17 April 2019). “The US wants to scan the faces of all air passengers leaving the country”. Quartz. Retrieved 2019-04-24.

^ “ICAO Document 9303: Machine Readable Travel Documents, Part 9: Deployment of Biometric Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs, 7th edition” (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2019.

^ “Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport”. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.

^ “Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE”. SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.

Notes

^

^

^
Panghok – Taichang (Vietnam)
Lantui – Baka (China)
Meuang mom – Wan Pong (Myanmar)
Tanalaeng Dry Port – Nongkai (Thailand)
Nonghaed – Nam kanh (Vietnam)
Pakxan – Bungkan (Thailand)
Nam phao – Cau treo (Vietnam)
Na pao – Cha lo (Vietnam)
Nam ngeun – Huay konl (Thailand)
Namheuang – Nakaseng (Thailand)
Phoudou (Thailand)
Nam soy – Na meo (Vietnam)
Phoukeua – Kontoum (Vietnam)
Lalai (Vietnam)
Pangmone – Phayao (Thailand)
Daktaock – Nam Giang (Vietnam)
Savannakhet Airport

^
Vientiane
Savannakhet
Bokeo

^
Vientiane
Savannakhet
Khammouane
Bokeo

^
Samliemkham (Thailand and Myanmar)
Tanalaeng – Nongkai (Thailand)
Daensavan – Lao bao (Vietnam)
Veunkham – Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
Vang tao – Chongmek (Thailand)
Boten – Bo han (China)

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