Francis Scott Key Bridge collapse: Difference between revisions

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Except for the unaffected Sparrows Point terminal,<ref name=”Bologna” /> Baltimore’s marine terminals will remain closed to shipping until the channel is cleared.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://maritime-executive.com/article/baltimore-bridge-strike-could-be-the-most-expensive-marine-loss-ever |title=Baltimore Bridge Strike Could be the Most Expensive Marine Casualty Ever |website=The Maritime Executive |access-date=March 28, 2024 |archive-date=March 28, 2024 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328222211/https://maritime-executive.com/article/baltimore-bridge-strike-could-be-the-most-expensive-marine-loss-ever |url-status=live }}</ref>

Except for the unaffected Sparrows Point terminal,<ref name=”Bologna” /> Baltimore’s marine terminals will remain closed to shipping until the channel is cleared.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://maritime-executive.com/article/baltimore-bridge-strike-could-be-the-most-expensive-marine-loss-ever |title=Baltimore Bridge Strike Could be the Most Expensive Marine Casualty Ever |website=The Maritime Executive |access-date=March 28, 2024 |archive-date=March 28, 2024 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328222211/https://maritime-executive.com/article/baltimore-bridge-strike-could-be-the-most-expensive-marine-loss-ever |url-status=live }}</ref>

[[Barclays]] and [[Morningstar DBRS]] estimated that the insured losses from the [[Ship collision|collision]] could range from $1 billion to $4 billion, whilst [[Lloyd’s of London]] Chairman [[Bruce Carnegie-Brown]] suggested that the claims could end up representing the largest [[marine insurance]] loss in history.<ref>{{cite news|last=Reid|first=Jenni|date=March 28, 2024|title=Baltimore disaster may be the largest-ever marine insurance payout, Lloyd’s boss says|publisher=CNBC|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2024/03/28/baltimore-disaster-may-be-largest-ever-marine-insurance-payout-lloyds-.html|access-date=March 28, 2024|archive-date=March 28, 2024|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328132219/https://www.cnbc.com/2024/03/28/baltimore-disaster-may-be-largest-ever-marine-insurance-payout-lloyds-.html|url-status=live}}</ref> The Maryland [[State governments of the United States|state government]]’s insurance for the bridge covers up to $350 million for damage, while the bridge cost $60 million to construct in 1977 (or $300 million in [[Real and nominal value|inflation-adjusted terms]] in 2024).<ref>{{cite news|last=Eaglesham|first=Jean|date=March 28, 2024|title=Lawyers Gear Up for Swift Start in Legal Fight Over Baltimore Bridge|work=The Wall Street Journal|publisher=News Corp|url=https://www.wsj.com/us-news/legal-fight-over-destroyed-baltimore-bridge-is-likely-about-to-start-bd7f9127|access-date=March 28, 2024|archive-date=March 28, 2024|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328104410/https://www.wsj.com/us-news/legal-fight-over-destroyed-baltimore-bridge-is-likely-about-to-start-bd7f9127|url-status=live}}</ref>

[[Barclays]] and [[Morningstar DBRS]] estimated that the insured losses from the [[Ship collision|collision]] could range from $1 billion to $4 billion, while [[Lloyd’s of London]] Chairman [[Bruce Carnegie-Brown]] suggested that the claims could end up representing the largest [[marine insurance]] loss in history.<ref>{{cite news|last=Reid|first=Jenni|date=March 28, 2024|title=Baltimore disaster may be the largest-ever marine insurance payout, Lloyd’s boss says|publisher=CNBC|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2024/03/28/baltimore-disaster-may-be-largest-ever-marine-insurance-payout-lloyds-.html|access-date=March 28, 2024|archive-date=March 28, 2024|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328132219/https://www.cnbc.com/2024/03/28/baltimore-disaster-may-be-largest-ever-marine-insurance-payout-lloyds-.html|url-status=live}}</ref> The Maryland [[State governments of the United States|state government]]’s insurance for the bridge covers up to $350 million for damage, while the bridge cost $60 million to construct in 1977 (or $300 million in [[Real and nominal value|inflation-adjusted terms]] in 2024).<ref>{{cite news|last=Eaglesham|first=Jean|date=March 28, 2024|title=Lawyers Gear Up for Swift Start in Legal Fight Over Baltimore Bridge|work=The Wall Street Journal|publisher=News Corp|url=https://www.wsj.com/us-news/legal-fight-over-destroyed-baltimore-bridge-is-likely-about-to-start-bd7f9127|access-date=March 28, 2024|archive-date=March 28, 2024|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20240328104410/https://www.wsj.com/us-news/legal-fight-over-destroyed-baltimore-bridge-is-likely-about-to-start-bd7f9127|url-status=live}}</ref>

== Responses ==

== Responses ==

2024 bridge collapse in Maryland, United States

On March 26, 2024, at 1:28 a.m. EDT (05:28 UTC), the main spans and the three nearest northeast approach spans of the Francis Scott Key Bridge across the Patapsco River between Baltimore and Dundalk, Maryland, United States, collapsed after the container ship Dali struck one of its piers.
Two people were rescued from the river; one had no injuries, while the other was transported to a hospital in critical condition. Six members of a construction crew working on the roadway were reported missing; two bodies were recovered, and the other four are presumed dead.
Much of the Port of Baltimore remains closed to shipping as a result of the collapse. Maryland Governor Wes Moore called the event a “global crisis” and stated that over 8,000 jobs were impacted. Experts estimate that the closure of the waterway is causing losses of $15 million per day.

Background

The bridge (pictured in 2015) facing upstream; Dali hit the fourth pillar from left[1]
The Francis Scott Key Bridge was a steel arch-shaped continuous truss bridge. It opened in 1977, and it ran northeast from Hawkins Point, Baltimore to Sollers Point in Dundalk, crossing the Patapsco River, a vital shipping route giving access to the Port of Baltimore[2] and one of the busiest in the United States.[3] The port handled more than 444,000 passengers, 52.3 million tons of foreign cargo valued at $80 billion in 2023, and was the leading U.S. port for automobiles and light trucks for the preceding 13 consecutive years (with more than 847,000 vehicles in 2023).[2][4] It also employed 15,000 people and indirectly supported 140,000 others.[5]
The bridge was the second longest continuous truss bridge in the United States and third longest in the world.[6] The 1.6-mile-long (2.6 km) bridge carried four lanes of Interstate 695 which is a beltway around Baltimore.[2] Two lanes of traffic in each direction[7] were used by approximately 34,000 vehicles each day.[3] A cargo ship collision in 1980 left the Key Bridge undamaged.[8]
MV Dali is a Singapore-flagged container ship, operated by Synergy Marine Group[9] and owned by Grace Ocean Private Ltd.[10] Danish shipping company Maersk has chartered Dali since its delivery in early 2015.[11] It was built in 2015 with a length of 980 feet (300 m), a 157-foot (48 m) beam, and a 40-foot (12.2 m) draft.[12] Dali passed two port inspections in 2023, according to the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA). The first inspection was completed in June at San Antonio, Chile, where a monitor gauge for fuel pressure was repaired. A second inspection in September by the Coast Guard in New York did not identify any issues.[13]
Dali had previously traveled from Panama to the U.S., arriving in New York on March 19, 2024.[14] From there the ship sailed to the Virginia International Gateway in Portsmouth, Virginia, before departing for Baltimore on March 22, arriving on March 23.[14][15]
The main shipping channel under the bridge was estimated to be 50 feet (15 m) deep, while National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charts show the depth at the bridge supports to be approximately 30 feet (9.1 m).[16]

Collapse
MV Dali immobilized by the wreckage
Dali left the Port of Baltimore at 12:44 a.m. EDT (04:44 UTC) on March 26, 2024,[17] bound for Colombo, Sri Lanka.[18] The ship’s crew of 22 were Indian nationals,[19] and the ship was being piloted by two local American harbor pilots.[1] At 1:24 a.m.,[20][21] the ship suffered a “complete blackout” and began to drift out of the shipping channel; a backup generator supported electrical systems but did not provide power to the propulsion system.[5] At 1:26 a.m., a mayday call was made from the ship,[21] notifying the Maryland Department of Transportation that control of the vessel had been lost and that a collision with the bridge was possible, citing loss of propulsion.[22] One of the pilots requested that traffic be stopped from crossing the bridge immediately.[7][23][24][25] The ship’s lights went out and came on again some moments later; the lights then went off again and powered back on immediately before impact as renewed smoke was emitted from its funnel.[1][26] At the pilot’s request, Maryland Transportation Authority Police dispatch requested officers to stop traffic in both directions at 1:27:53 a.m. Northbound traffic was stopped at the south side after 20 seconds. Southbound traffic was stopped at the north side by 1:28:58 a.m., around the time of the collapse.[27] Singapore’s Maritime and Port Authority (MPA) reported that the ship dropped its anchors before hitting the bridge, as part of its emergency procedures.[7]
At 1:28:45 a.m.,[28][29][30] the ship struck a support column of the bridge, beneath its metal truss and at the south-west end of its largest span, at roughly 8 knots (9.2 mph; 15 km/h).[2] AIS data showed the ship traveling at a speed of 8.7 knots (10.0 mph; 16.1 km/h) at 1:25 a.m. before departing the channel and slowing to 6.8 knots (7.8 mph; 12.6 km/h) by the time of the collision two minutes later.[26][31]
Within seconds of the collision, the bridge broke apart in several places,[32] leaving sections protruding from the water and the roadway’s approaches cut off.[2] The main span fell onto the ship’s bow and a section of it came to rest there.[7][33] The bridge strike and partial collapse were recorded on video.[34]
Multiple vehicles were on the bridge at the time it collapsed, though initially no one was believed to be inside them.[2] Paul Wiedefeld, the Maryland Secretary of Transportation, said that workers were repairing potholes on the bridge at the time of the collapse,[2] but they were later reported to be in their cars on a break at the time of the collapse.[35] A resident living near the bridge recalled being awakened by deep rumbling that shook his residence for several seconds following the collapse, which he said “felt like an earthquake”.[2]
Emergency teams began receiving 911 calls at 1:30 a.m.[7] The Baltimore Police Department was alerted to the collapse at 1:35 a.m. Large-scale rescue and recovery efforts were initiated.[34] The United States Coast Guard deployed boats and a helicopter as part of rescue efforts.[7] Public safety divers were also dispatched to search for people who fell into the river.[36] A total of 50 divers divided into eight teams were deployed in rescue efforts.[7]

Damage

The pier struck by the ship photographed in 2016
Aerial view of the damage
The collision of Dali with the southwest main truss pier destroyed it, bringing down the entire truss span.[37] As the bridge was a continuous truss bridge which relied on its overall structure to maintain integrity, it was fracture critical, meaning it had no redundancy against removal of support of any particular part of it.[28] Therefore, when the south and central spans (on each side of the impacted pier) collapsed, the northern component (the third span) followed.[34] Each failure sequence took seconds, and within 30 seconds the entirety of the central span had fallen into the river.[38] The bridge was determined to be fully compliant with the building code when it collapsed.[7] The bridge had both dolphin and fender protection against ship impact, but these protections were insufficient.[39][40][41]
Thirteen of Dali’s 4,700 shipping containers were damaged following the collision,[42] while two containers fell into the water, neither of which carried hazardous substances.[43] Dali sustained hull damage above the water line and the ship was impaled by remnants of the bridge superstructure,[44] which press it against the channel floor.[45] The ship remained watertight,[44] and although the shipping company initially claimed there was no water pollution directly from the ship following the incident,[46][47] authorities installed 2,400 feet (730 m) of water containment booms[48] around the ship after a sheen was detected in the waterway, which was believed to have been produced by 21 US gallons (17 imp gal; 79 L) of oil that leaked from a bow thruster on the ship.[49] On March 27, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) announced an investigation into a hazmat spill resulting from breached containers onboard Dali.[50] Fifty-six of these containers, carrying approximately 764 tons of materials—including primarily corrosive and flammable substances as well as lithium batteries—were reported to have been compromised.[51]

Casualties
NOAA reported a water temperature of 47 °F (8 °C) at the time of the collapse.[2] Two people were rescued from the river, one of whom was in “very serious” condition, while the other person was said to have walked off with no injuries.[51] One of those rescued was a Mexican national.[10] Six people—all part of the construction crew working on the bridge—were reported missing and are presumed dead following the suspension of a U.S. Coast Guard search effort.[7][52][53][54] One of them was identified as a Honduran national; two were from Guatemala, and the others were from El Salvador and Mexico.[10][21]
At least five submerged vehicles, including three passenger vehicles and a transit mixer, were detected using sonar. Emergency services also used drones and infrared technology in search efforts.[28] The bodies of two of the construction crew were recovered from inside a pickup truck: a 35-year-old Mexican national and a 26-year-old Guatemalan national.[55] They were recovered from a depth of 25 feet (7.6 m) below the mid-section of the bridge.[56] A 38-year-old Honduran national and a 49-year-old citizen of El Salvador have been identified as among the missing.[57]
The ship’s crew, including its two pilots, were accounted for and did not sustain any injuries.[46] However, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs said that an Indian crew member was slightly injured and required some stitches.[43]

Investigation

An evidence response team from the FBI examines a segment of the bridge several hours after the collapse
Officials coordinating response and rescue efforts on the day of the collapse
The NTSB began an investigation and sent a team to the site.[58][59] The agency is expected to release a preliminary report two to four weeks after the collapse and later issue urgent safety recommendations, while its investigation could take between 12 to 24 months.[60] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was also deployed to the scene, but said that terrorism was not suspected in the incident.[2]
Singapore’s Transport Safety Investigation Bureau (TSIB) and the MPA sent personnel to Baltimore to assist in investigations. The MPA said it reached out to the NTSB and the Office of Marine Safety to offer support.[61]
NTSB personnel boarded the ship late on March 26 and obtained the voyage data recorder (VDR), which would help investigators develop a timeline of events leading up to the collision.[62][63] Several possible factors were being considered, including the possibility that contaminated fuel or an improper grade of fuel had caused the loss of the ship’s power.[64][65]

Timeline
The NTSB released a preliminary timeline of events from the ship’s VDR and Maryland Transportation Authority Police (MDTA Police) data.[50][63] All times are EDT on March 26, 2024, are approximate, and are subject to validation and change by technical experts to be convened by the NTSB. The VDR includes audio from the ship’s bridge and radios, and ship system data that includes, for example, ship speed, engine RPM, rudder angle, ship heading, and some alarm information.

Time

Event

00:39

Dali departs Seagirt Marine Terminal.

01:07

Dali enters Fort McHenry Channel.

01:24

Dali underway at a heading of ~141° at ~8 knots (9.2 mph; 15 km/h).

01:24:59

Multiple audible alarms on Dali’s bridge; power goes out; VDR ceases recording.

01:25:31

Backup power.

TBD

Verbal rudder commands are recorded.

01:26:02

VDR resumes full recording of ship systems.

01:26:39

Pilot requests return of tugboats.

TBD

Pilot association dispatcher phones the MDTA duty officer of Dali’s lack of steering.

TBD

MDTA duty officer dispatches units to close the bridge.

01:27:04

Ship’s pilot commands that the port anchor be dropped, and issues additional steering commands.

01:27:25

Pilot reports that all power was lost and that Dali was approaching the bridge.

TBD

All vehicular approaches to the bridge are shut down.

01:29:00

Dali at 7 knots (8.1 mph; 13 km/h) dragging anchor.

TBD

First sounds of collision with the bridge are recorded.

01:29:39

First report that the bridge has collapsed.

Aftermath
The debris from the collapse has blocked maritime access to almost all of the Port of Baltimore, trapping several vessels inside the harbor.[1] On March 26, CMA CGM was the first shipping line to declare force majeure in terminating their contracts of carriage with clients once cargo is delivered to diversion ports, followed by COSCO and Evergreen.[66] On March 28, the Mediterranean Shipping Company followed suit, while Maersk announced that it would provide transport from diversion ports to its clients.[67] This had a significant impact on the shipping industry, as shipping lines sought alternate ports and shippers raced to arrange for land transportation from those ports before late fees (detention and demurrage charges) began to accrue.[66] Only one part of the Port of Baltimore was unaffected: the Tradepoint Atlantic marine terminal at Sparrows Point, on the seaward side of the Key Bridge.[68]
Maryland Governor Wes Moore declared a state of emergency shortly thereafter,[7] and Maryland Secretary of Transportation Paul Wiedefeld ordered the suspension of all shipping to and from the Port of Baltimore[69] until further notice; trucking facilities remained operational.[2] At 4:15 a.m., the Federal Aviation Administration imposed a 5-nautical-mile (9.3 km) temporary flight restriction around the incident site.[70] Maersk, which chartered the vessel, saw its shares decline by about 2% when trading opened at Nasdaq Copenhagen on March 26.[2] Maersk paused all service to Baltimore indefinitely.[59]

Long-term
As of March 29, I-695 remains closed between the MD 173 and MD 157 interchanges.[71] Traffic is being detoured along I-95 and I-895, which cross Baltimore Harbor respectively at the Fort McHenry and Baltimore Harbor tunnels; vehicles carrying hazardous loads are not permitted in either tunnel.[1] Vehicles with hazardous loads and those exceeding the tunnels’ vertical clearances are being detoured along the western section of I-695.[72] Advisories were issued to motorists as far away as Virginia warning of traffic delays caused by the bridge collapse.[2]
Stellantis and General Motors said they will divert vehicle imports to other ports, and Toyota reported that some of their exports could be affected.[73] The bridge collapse also rendered the terminals of Mercedes-Benz, CSX at Curtis Bay, and Consol Energy inaccessible to shipping as they were located behind the bridge.[74] Governor Moore said that the 8,000 jobs could be affected by the bridge’s collapse and called the disaster a “global crisis”. Experts also estimated daily losses of $15 million while the waterway remained closed to shipping.[75] On March 28, New York Governor Kathy Hochul and New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy offered the use of ports in their states in handling affected cargo shipments to minimize supply chain disruptions.[76]
In the Maryland General Assembly, Bill Ferguson, the president of the Maryland Senate, and state delegate Luke Clippinger introduced emergency legislation providing income replacement for workers and local businesses impacted by the disaster.[77] Republican state senators Bryan Simonaire and Johnny Ray Salling introduced another bill that would allow the governor to declare a year-long state of emergency following damage to critical infrastructure, though it would not include the authority to seize private property for government use as now allowed under a state of emergency.[78] Governor Moore also plans to introduce legislation to establish a permanent state scholarship for the children of surviving spouses of construction workers killed during the bridge collapse.[79]
Except for the unaffected Sparrows Point terminal,[68] Baltimore’s marine terminals will remain closed to shipping until the channel is cleared.[80]
Barclays and Morningstar DBRS estimated that the insured losses from the collision could range from $1 billion to $4 billion, while Lloyd’s of London Chairman Bruce Carnegie-Brown suggested that the claims could end up representing the largest marine insurance loss in history.[81] The Maryland state government’s insurance for the bridge covers up to $350 million for damage, while the bridge cost $60 million to construct in 1977 (or $300 million in inflation-adjusted terms in 2024).[82]

Responses
President Biden being briefed on the collapse of the Francis Scott Key BridgePresident Joe Biden was briefed on the disaster.[2] In an address later that day, Biden said that he would ask Congress to fund the bridge’s reconstruction.[83] The federal government released an initial $60 million in aid.[49]
U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg contacted Maryland Governor Wes Moore and Baltimore Mayor Brandon Scott to offer his department’s support.[84] Moore also described the bridge’s collapse as “heartbreaking”, while Maryland Center for History and Culture vice president David Belew said that “Our harbor, port and many families are fundamentally changed” by the disaster.[6] Moore also addressed the families of the victims in Spanish, saying Estamos contigo, ahora y siempre (we are with you, now and always).[60]
Rafael Laveaga, Mexico’s consul in Maryland, visited Baltimore to meet with the families of the Mexican victims. He confirmed that one of the rescued was from Michoacán, while the two who are still missing are from Michoacán and Veracruz. The Mexican Embassy in the U.S. is providing consular assistance to the families, with a dedicated phone line for affected Mexican nationals.[85] Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said the disaster “demonstrates that migrants go out and do risky jobs at midnight”, and criticized their treatment by “certain insensitive, irresponsible politicians in the United States”.[86]
On March 27, Moore and Biden thanked Dali’s crew for transmitting the mayday call warning of the ship’s power failure and the impending collision.[87][88]
On March 28, three officers of the Maryland Transportation Authority were recognized at the opening game of the Baltimore Orioles for their role in stopping traffic prior to the bridge collapse.[49]

Salvage
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is taking the lead in first removing portions of the bridge, and the U.S. Navy is planning to remove the submerged portions using barges with heavy lift cranes, including the “largest crane ship on the East Coast”, the Chesapeake 1000 of Donjon Marine Co., able to lift 1,000 tons;[75][89] the designated salvor is Resolve Marine.[45] Thirty-two USACE personnel and 38 navy contractors were deployed to the scene.[48]

See also

Notes

^ In maritime terminology, a collision is between two moving vessels; an allision is between a moving vessel and a stationary object, such as a bridge.

References

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^ a b “Major US bridge collapses as cargo ship plows into pylon”. France 24. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 29, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ LaRocco, Lori Ann (March 26, 2024). “Logistics companies scramble after bridge collapse closes Port of Baltimore until further notice”. CNBC. Retrieved March 29, 2024.

^ a b “Baltimore Key Bridge collapse: All we know about the ship crash and victims”. Al Jazeera. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ a b “Named for ‘Star-Spangled Banner’ author, Francis Scott Key Bridge was part of Baltimore’s identity”. Associated Press. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 28, 2024. Retrieved March 28, 2024.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Alonso, Melissa; Mascarenhas, Lauren; and Forrest, Jack (March 26, 2024). “Rescuers are searching for multiple people in the water after Baltimore bridge collapse, report says”. CNN. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ Rose, Joel; Greenfieldboyce, Nell (March 26, 2024). “Questions arise amid the collapse of the Key bridge in Baltimore”. NPR. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 27, 2024.

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^ “9,962-TEU wide beamed Jenny Box joins Maersk’s China-India service”. Asean Lines. August 6, 2015. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “Dali, Container Ship – Details and current position – IMO 9697428 – VesselFinder”. vesselfinder.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

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^ “Chart 12281”. NOAA Chart 12281. Archived from the original on December 8, 2023. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

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^ “Baltimore bridge: All Indian crew on container ship that brought Baltimore bridge down”. The Economic Times. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ What the NTSB preliminary data reveals about the final moments before Baltimore bridge collapse. ABC News. March 28, 2024. Archived from the original on March 28, 2024. Retrieved March 28, 2024 – via www.youtube.com.

^ a b c Debusmann Jr, Bernd; Bateman, Tom (March 26, 2024). “Lost power, a mayday call and the crash that brought down a Baltimore bridge”. BBC News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ Neath, Amelia; Rissman, Kelly (March 26, 2024). “What we know about Baltimore Key Bridge collapse as seven people still missing”. The Independent. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “Baltimore bridge collapses after powerless cargo ship rams into support column; 6 people are missing”. Boston Herald. Associated Press. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 29, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “Live Updates: 6 People Are Missing in Baltimore Bridge Collapse”. The New York Times. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ Jouvenal, Justin; Hermann, Peter; Craig, Tim; Francis, Ellen; Nguyen, Danny (March 26, 2024). “‘Mayday’ call from ship stopped Baltimore bridge traffic, saved lives”. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 27, 2024.

^ a b Baraniuk, Chris (March 26, 2024). “Why the Baltimore bridge collapsed so quickly”. Wired. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 27, 2024. Steel structures aren’t as strong as you might think—and the immense power of a container ship shouldn’t be underestimated.

^ Victor, Daniel (March 27, 2024). “Radio Chatter Reveals How Officers Quickly Closed Bridge to Traffic”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 28, 2024.

^ a b c “Live updates: Baltimore Key bridge collapses after ship collision”. CNN. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “How First Responders Saved Lives before and after Baltimore Bridge Collapse”. National Review. March 27, 2024. Archived from the original on March 29, 2024. Retrieved March 29, 2024.

^ Swalec, Andrea; Staff, NBC Washington; Press • •, Associated (March 26, 2024). “Video shows collapse of Baltimore’s Francis Scott Key Bridge”. NBC4 Washington. Archived from the original on March 29, 2024. Retrieved March 29, 2024.

^ “Container ship Dali struck and collapsed Francis Scott Key Bridge”. VesselFinder. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 27, 2024.

^ “Baltimore bridge collapses after cargo ship collision”. France 24. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 27, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “Baltimore Key Bridge collapse, in pictures”. BBC. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ a b c “Live: Rescuers search for missing after ship destroys Baltimore bridge”. BBC News. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ Yang, Maya (March 28, 2024). “Workers were on break in cars when Baltimore bridge collapsed, wife of survivor says”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 28, 2024. Retrieved March 28, 2024.

^ Shalvey, Kevin (March 26, 2024). “Ship strikes Baltimore’s Francis Scott Key Bridge causing partial collapse, Maryland officials say”. ABC News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ “Major Baltimore bridge collapses after being hit by ship”. BBC News. March 26, 2024. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

^ Cai, Weiyi; Chang, Agnes; Leatherby, Lauren (March 26, 2024). “How the Key Bridge Collapsed in Baltimore: Maps and Photos”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 26, 2024. Retrieved March 26, 2024.

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